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The Psychoneuroimmunology of Stress: Acute and Chronic

The Psychoneuroimmunology of Stress: Acute and Chronic

Research by: Shannon Connell

Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is a field of research that deals with the interaction of the central nervous system, the endocrine system, and the immune system, and how these systems can be altered through behavior and stress. The immune, nervous, and endocrine systems communicate to maintain health. PNI is interested in the effects of thoughts and emotion on immune functioning. Stress affects the entire being, nerves, cells, tissues, and systems of the body. Stress if held, can disrupt nervous, endocrine, and immune system functioning resulting in “dis-ease” of body and mind.

Agribusiness: Why did humans abandon their job to protect Nature? By: Shannon Connell


The unethical practices of food production and its transportation, packaging, and sales are the major contributors to the environmental and health crisis humans now face (Lappe, 2010). This becomes evident as the U.S. Federal government offers only 3% of annual funding to public health interventions in disease prevention and community health education (Schneider, 2006). The depletion of soil, water, and air along with the production of low nutritionally content foods and their consumption are major contributors to environmental pollution and to the current chronic disease epidemic, known as Syndrome X (Monat, Lazarus, & Reevy, 2007). Corporate control of our food supply has not only created a disconnection to Earth and Spirit, but has created a capitalistic overtaking which is inconsiderate of human and environmental well being (Hammers, 2002). There is interconnection between stress and cortisol levels, eating behavior and food choices, human health and environmental health (Epel, Lapidus, McEwen, & Brownell, 2001). Understanding the interconnectedness between all beings and all things is a vital realization for conflict resolution.

Yoga for Stress Reduction and Injury Prevention at Work

Every day, employees cope with various forms of stressors on the job. Increased risk for psychological and physical disorders may be due to work related trends such as working in repetitive and monotonous tasks, performing in a fast-paced environment, and or fearing a layoff during an unstable period in the economy. Psychological stress can be induced by extremely low or high demands on the individual and is a typical situation of many simple and repetitive work situations, in which health problems are common. This has innumerable health and financial implications for both employees and employers. Low job satisfaction and little variation in job task are significantly associated with back and shoulder pain. The majority of headaches people experience are tension headaches resulting from contraction of neck and shoulder muscles. Carpel tunnel and arthritis are associated with the repetitive strain from spending greater amounts of time at a computer. Job stress also can lead to burn out, and mental health challenges such as depression and anxiety.

Mindfulness Practice

Mindfulness theory is the practice of increasing mindfulness and decreasing mindlessness. Mindfulness theory is acceptance towards the ever-changing world, with the goal to increase cognitive flexibility, unconditional self-acceptance, and to decrease self-evaluation, social comparison, and rigidity. It simplifies and honors the interconnection of all perspectives...

Breathing Techniques- Practice

Choose your seat. Find a comfortable upright position. Ground down through both sit bones equally. Set up the connection to the Earth. Stack and create space between each vertebra. Reach up and lengthen through the crown of your head. Bring your attention to your breath.

Allow a couple rolls of the shoulders to release any tension, stress. Then have the shoulders relax and squeeze shoulder blades together to open the heart.